Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. for macOS and Windows. Photoshop was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll
Here are latest interview questions and Answers on Photoshop
1. What Is Adobe Photoshop?
Answer: Adobe Photoshop is a professional image editing software package that can be used by experts and novices alike. While this handout offers some very basic tips on using the tools available in Photoshop, more comprehensive guidance can be accessed on the web or in the help menu of your version of Photoshop. The version used for this tutorial is Adobe Photoshop Cs.
2. What Is Gradients In Adobe Photoshop?
Answer: Gradients are a great way to introduce flashy, eye-catching graphics in your pages.
3. How Do We Print The Grid In Adobe Photoshop?
Answer: Put the non printing grid on how you want it, then take a screen capture (alt + PrintScreen on PC) Open a new file, the size should be set as the size of the grab, and paste. Crop away everything (the background of the photoshop window, etc.) except for the image with grid on it… and print.
4. Can You Organize Layers As In Photoshop?
Answer: Yes we can organize layers..
For example you create a Ball in 1St layer and then in second layer you create the background. But you should lock all the layers and unlock the layer which u r working, because unlocked layers will be active always(active means, if u want to drage the ball, background layers also will be affected)
5. For Photoshop Is Cs3 Really That Much Better Than Cs2 On An Intel Mac?
Answer: On both the Photoshop CS works fine. But on Mac it seems to speed up faster. The startup is much faster than on windows but relative to the velocity of the CS2, it indeed is faster. So yes. photoshop cs3 is better at functioning on an intel mac rater than cs2, due to the faster startup
6. What Is A Smart Object In Adobe Photoshop?
Answer: Photoshop CS2 introduces a new type of layer called a Smart Object layer. Smart Objects are a little like symbols in Illustrator. Smart objects can consist of pixel-based content or vector-based content, like an Illustrator drawing placed in a Photoshop document. With smart objects, you can make multiple copies of a single object and all copies will be updated when one of the copies is edited but you can still apply layer styles and adjustment layers to the individual smart objects without affecting all copies, which provides for a lot of flexibility. Pixel-based smart objects also remember their original size and can be transformed multiple times without loss.
7. Explain About Stress Analysis In Adobe Photoshop?
Answer: People working on these areas as a aerospace engineers should have familiarity and exposure to NASTRAN and MATLAB with knowledge on space environment and modeling of flexible dynamics. These aerospace engineers will be responsible to conduct stress analysis on metallic and composite structures. NASTRAN, IDEAD, Oracle and PATRAN proficiency level is required. Their duties also include on aircraft which are metallic and composite structures. This includes and understanding of control surface stiffness and loop calculations, finite element modeling (FEM). fatigue testing requirement and analysis.
8. Explain About The Photoshop Work Area?
Answer: The work area can be intimidating to work with because of all the complex functionality but with a quick breakdown of the available features and their uses, you will be ready to comfortably navigate the work area with ease. The work area in Photoshop has the following basic functionality and features:
* Menu – Barthis is where you can access most of the commands and features in Photoshop
* Drawing Palette – where the image being worked on will appear
* Options bar – content sensitive display of tool options changes as different tools are selected display using Window> Options or Click a tool in the toolbox. Lasso options bar
* Tool box – for creating an editing images (display or hide using Windows > Tools)
* Palettes- to monitor and modify images (there are 5 palettes by default)
* Palette Well- to organize palettes in work area Drag a palettes tab into the palette well to store it in the palette well Once in the palette well click on the palette tab to use it
9. What Is The Quickest Way To Achieve This? multiple Layers? Layer Masks?
Answer: Open the color image you wish to modify. Select all and COPY the full image Now use Mode and reset the color to Gray scale, say “Yes” to removing all color. The image goes gray scale. Tweak or adjust the black and white until it suits you. Return to MODE and return the image to RGB Select the Move tool (Tap: “V”) and then PASTE The original color will return to the file on a new layer.
10. How Do You Create An Artistic Border?
Answer: Open any image
Make a selection using the rectangular Marquee Tool(M)
In your layer pallet add a layer mask
Then go to Filter>Brush Strokes>Sprayed Strokes and play with the stroke length etc. You can apply other styles too.
11. How To Achieve Black/white With Color Detail
Answer: use the lasso tool to carefully select the elements that you want to retain as color – you may even want to feather the selection by a couple of pixels if it looks better. Once you have these selected, invert the selection so that everything except the eyes/lips are selected, then desaturated the layer.
12. How To Unlock Background
Answer: Click on IMAGE go to MODE and select GRAY SCALE (if the PDF or JPG is black / white), and go back to the LAYER and double click, that will unlocked, if do not, go back to IMAGE and select RGB color and double click, that would do it.
13. How Do You Select An Exact Color To Match?
Answer: There are two ways of doing this: The easiest way is to use the eyedropper tool to sample the color as your foreground color – make sure the foreground color square is selected when you use the eyedropper tool – then use a brush, pencil or the paint bucket tool to cover the area. Alternatively, try using the Clone Stamp Tool. Alt+Click where you want to take the color from, and then hold down the mouse key to cover up the new area.
14. What Is Gradients?
Answer: Gradients are a great way to introduce flashy, eye-catching graphics in your pages.
Gradient tool is used to create a smooth blending between two or more colors.
15. How Do We Crop An Image In Photoshop?
Answer: Cropping an image allows you to cut out any portion of the image you don’t like and/or make an image smaller. This document contains the steps performed to crop an image in each of the major image editors. To the right is a visual example of a large image, such as a image scanned into the computer being cropped to a smaller image.
16. Explain About Stress Analysis?
Answer: People working on these areas as a aerospace engineers should have familiarity and exposure to NASTRAN and MATLAB with knowledge on space environment and modeling of flexible dynamics. These aerospace engineers will be responsible to conduct stress analysis on metallic and composite structures. NASTRAN, IDEAD, Oracle and PATRAN proficiency level is required. Their duties also include on aircraft which are metallic and composite structures. This includes and understanding of control surface stiffness and loop calculations, finite element modeling (FEM), fatigue testing requirement and analysis.
17. What Are The Top New Features In Adobe Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: Adobe PageMaker 7.0 includes a host of new features that make it easier for business and educational producers to create professional-quality documents. What follows is an overview of PageMaker 7.0’s top new features. For more details, see the Adobe PageMaker 7.0 At A Glance or the Adobe PageMaker 7.0 New Feature Highlights , available for download at www.adobe.com/products/pagemaker.
Data Merge. Create customized content, such as direct mail, form letters, business cards, and catalogs using text and image data exported from databases or spreadsheets and saved as comma-separated files in .csv or .txt format.
Support for placing native Adobe Photoshop® 5.0–6.0.x files. Eliminate the time and effort of creating flattened Photoshop (PSD) files for import. Automatically update placed PSD files after making and saving changes to the file in Photoshop. Manage and store only one image file for use in multiple documents and applications.
Expanded support for placing native Adobe Illustrator® files. Place native Illustrator 9.0.x files as easily as you place native files from earlier versions of Illustrator. Because Illustrator 9.0’s native format is Adobe PDF, the Import PDF dialog box opens when you place 9.0.x files. Note: PageMaker 7.0 does not display or print transparency effects in native Illustrator 9.0 files. However, you can display and print transparency by first saving the Illustrator file as an EPS file.
Place Adobe PDF files created in Photoshop or Illustrator, as well as PDF 1.3 and 1.4 version files created in other applications. (PageMaker also continues to place PDF 1.2 files.) Now you don’t have to worry about locating the original files for information that’s stored and distributed in Adobe PDF files. Just place the PDF files instead.
Updated EPS filter. Place EPS files saved as Adobe PostScript® 3™ files for maximum quality. Print and perform in-RIP separations of these files on PostScript 3 devices.
Improved user interface for exporting Adobe PDF files. Access Acrobat® Distiller™ 5.0 Job Options directly, including document-level security controls. Produce more compact Adobe PDF files because of updated support in Acrobat Distiller 5.0, which is included with PageMaker 7.0. (Acrobat Distiller 5.0 typically generates more compact Adobe PDF files than Distiller 4.0, which was included with PageMaker 6.5 Plus.) Review files with new Acrobat Reader™ 5.0, which is included with PageMaker 7.0.
Tagged PDF support (eBooks). Make content more portable: Check the eBook (Embed Tags) option in the Export Adobe PDF dialog box to automatically tag the text and graphics in the publication, making them independent of page size and viewing device in the final PDF file. View tagged PDF publications on a wide variety of devices, including popular PDAs. PDF tagging enables the publication layout to reflow for optimal readability on different displays.
Updated converter for QuarkXPress and Microsoft® Publisher. Easily convert documents from QuarkXPress 4.0 and 4.1 (Mac OS/Windows) and Microsoft Publisher 2000 (Windows only). Work efficiently with a single converter utility that handles conversion of both QuarkXPress and Publisher documents on the Windows platform. With this new support, PageMaker 7.0 now converts QuarkXPress 3.3–4.1 documents and Publisher 97–2000 documents.
Updated filter for Microsoft Word and RTF file import. Import content from Microsoft Word 2000 (Windows) and 2001 (Mac OS), and enjoy enhanced support for .rtf and .txt file import.
Enhanced operating system support. Enjoy greater stability and reliability due to updated support for the latest operating systems, including: Apple system software versions 8.6 (with Apple Software Font Manager Update version 1.0), 9.1, and OS X (Classic); and Microsoft Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 5 or 6, Windows 2000, and Windows ME.
18. What Is The Difference Between The Educational And Retail Versions Of Adobe Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: The EULA for the Educational version stipulates that it may be used only by an “Educational End User” (for educational purposes). Educational versions of Adobe software include all of the same features as retail versions. However, they may not include the same “extras” that a retail version has, such as free fonts or clip art—or they may include different “extras.” In addition, educational products are available at a discount, and so do not qualify for additional special pricing offered to retail customers. Educational versions of Adobe products are available through Adobe Authorized Educational Resellers, including campus bookstores and mail order companies (Mac and PC Connection, Mac and PC Zone, and Mac and PC Warehouse).
19. Is Adobe Pagemaker 7.0 “carbonized”?
Answer: Adobe supports the direction Apple is taking with Mac OS X. Apple’s new operating system promises to deliver a powerful desktop platform with enhanced stability and reliability for the Macintosh customer. Currently, most Adobe software products do not offer native Mac OS X support. We plan to support Mac OS X native mode in future releases of our flagship products. PageMaker 7.0 is not a native application because we were in the advanced stages of code development before Mac OS X became available. However, PageMaker 7.0 will run successfully in Classic mode on Mac OS X.
20. Is Indesign The Replacement For Pagemaker?
Answer: Yes if you’re a high-end designer who uses PageMaker. InDesign provides a host of creativity and productivity features that are specifically designed for professional page layout. PageMaker serves the needs of business publishers and educators. Adobe offers a special $299* cross-grade price for high-end users of PageMaker who want to move to InDesign. You can download a 60-day, fully functional trial version of InDesign 1.5.2 at www.adobe.com/products/indesign to try out its high-end features. We also include the InDesign free trial on the PageMaker 7.0 application CD. *Pricing subject to change without notice.
21. Will Pagemaker 7.0 Be Able To Open Files Saved In Previous Versions Of Pagemaker?
Answer: Yes; assuming the files were created on the same operating system platform as your installed version of PageMaker 7.0, you can open PageMaker files saved in PageMaker 4.0 through PageMaker 6.5 Plus. This is true for both the Macintosh and Windows platforms. You can open files created in earlier versions of PageMaker on a different operating system than your installed version of PageMaker 7.0 by using the CrossPlatform Converter included with PageMaker 7.0. You can find the converter in the Extras folder installed with PageMaker 7.0 on your hard drive.
22. Does Pagemaker 7.0 Include Adobe Acrobat 5.0?
Answer: Adobe PageMaker 7.0 does not ship with the full Acrobat 5.0 product, but it does include two very important components of Acrobat 5.0—Acrobat Distiller and Acrobat Reader. Acrobat Distiller, along with a PostScript driver, enables you to create Adobe PDF files directly from within PageMaker with a variety of options, including security settings and settings to optimize publications for screen, print, and Web distribution. Acrobat Reader allows you to view and print PDF files.
23. Are There Any Differences Between The Mac And Windows Versions Of Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: Yes there are some differences. Namely, the following features are available on the Windows platform only:
A Picture Palette for browsing and managing stock illustrations, clip art, and photographs in a wide variety of industry-standard formats. Browse by category, thumbnails, or keyword search. Users can easily add or delete graphics and create new categories.
A Template Browser for searching and managing PageMaker templates.
A Microsoft Office-style toolbar with shortcuts to commonly used features. For example, checking spelling, adding bulleted lists, changing frame options, and creating text wraps are now just a single mouse-click away.
A Microsoft Publisher 97, 98, and 2000 conversion kit. Microsoft Publisher customers can now give their documents a professional look and feel. Publisher files can be batch-converted to PageMaker files with a few mouse-clicks.
24. In What Languages Can I Author Pagemaker Documents?
Answer: You can author Roman-language documents in any Roman-language version of PageMaker and doublebyte language documents (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) in any double-byte versions of PageMaker. For example, you can author a Spanish document in a French version of PageMaker or a Japanese document in a Chinese version of PageMaker. (Note: To use double-byte fonts in PageMaker, you must purchase a version that supports them—e.g. Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.)
PageMaker 7.0 is available in the following languages:
25. What Fonts Are Included In The Retail Version Of Pagemaker 7.0? In The Educational Version?
Answer: Both the Educational and the Retail versions of PageMaker 7.0 provide valuable Adobe Type 1 fonts,
Adobe Wood Type Ornaments 1
Adobe Wood Type Ornaments 2
ITC American Typewriter
ITC Avant Garde Gothic 1
ITC Fenice 1
ITC Galliard 1
ITC Officina Sans
ITC Officina Serif
ITC Zapf Dingbats
PageMaker 7.0 template fonts, including:
Century Old Style
ITC Bookman 1
ITC Bookman 2
ITC Cheltenham 1
ITC Cheltenham 2
ITC Esprit (2,5)
ITC Galliard 2
ITC New Baskerville
ITC Zapf Chancery
In addition, the Retail version of PageMaker 7.0 includes:
26. How Much Will Pagemaker 7.0 Cost?
Answer: The estimated street price for the retail version of PageMaker 7.0 is $499 (U.S.) for all platforms. Registered PageMaker users can upgrade to version 7.0 for only $79 (U.S.).* The estimated street price for the Educational version of PageMaker 7.0 is $289 (U.S.) for all platforms. Registered users of Educational versions of PageMaker can upgrade to version 7.0 for only $79.* Education and licensing customers should contact their account managers for additional pricing information. *Important: If you’re upgrading from a retail or educational version of PageMaker that’s older than version 4.0, you should call Adobe Customer Service at 1-800-422-3623 for assistance with your PageMaker 7.0 software installation.
27. What Are The System Requirements For Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: PageMaker 7.0 has the following system requirements:
Mac OS software version 8.6 (with Apple Software Font Manager Update version 1.0), 9.1, and OS X (Classic)
16 MB of available RAM (32 MB recommended)
100 MB of available hard-disk space for installation (150 recommended)
800×600 monitor resolution with 8-bit/256colors (high-resolution 24-bit screen display recommended)
For Postscript printers: Adobe PostScript Level 2 or higher required
Intel® Pentium® processor
Microsoft Windows 98, or Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 5 or 6, or Windows 2000,or Windows ME
32 MB of available RAM (48 MB or more recommended)
175 MB of available hard-disk space for installation (200 MB or more recommended)
Video card with 800×600 resolution and 8-bit/256 colors (24-bit, high-resolution display recommended)
For Adobe PostScript printers: Adobe PostScript Level 2 or later.
28. Who Is The Audience For Adobe Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: PageMaker continues to be a strong draw for new customers who want to present more polished communications.
These users include:
The business marketing communications, sales, or administrative professional who must produce marketing plans, business reports, policy guides, and more. These users deal with corporate brand guidelines on the use of logos, typefaces, and other corporate identity elements. They are not design professionals themselves and have no time or budget to hire designers, but everything they produce must look professional and convey competence.
The small office/home office (SOHO) producer who may need to create business cards and letterhead, project proposals, newsletters, brochures, direct mail, flyers, ads, and signage. They need polished materials to compete with the bigger guys, but don’t have much time or training.
The teacher, administrator, faculty member, or student in K-12 or college. Educators produce a mindboggling array of class materials, academic reports, grant proposals, course catalogs, brochures, flyers, newsletters, yearbooks, and the occasional thesis. Their design skills and budgets may be limited, but they still want to create good-looking materials.
29. What Plug-ins Are Available For Adobe Pagemaker And Where Can We Try Them Out?
Answer: For a complete list of available plug-ins, go to:
To search for PageMaker plug-in developers, see the Adobe Partner Finder at
30. Are There Opportunities For Third-party Developers To Build Pagemaker Plug-ins?
Answer: Yes. Soon after PageMaker 7.0 is available, Adobe will release its PageMaker 7.0 SDK and provide developer support. Please watch http://partners.adobe.com/asn/developer/gapsdk/PageMakerSDK.html for more details.
31. How Do I Get More Information About The Adobe Solutions Network Developer Program?
Answer: Please go to the following URL to find out more information about the ASN Developer Program:
32. How Does Adobe Pagemaker 7.0 Integrate With Acrobat 5.0?
Answer: Adobe PageMaker can create Adobe PDF files that are compatible with Adobe Acrobat 3.0–5.0;PageMaker can also place PDF files created from those versions of Acrobat. PageMaker 7.0’s Export Adobe PDF Options provide complete control over Acrobat Distiller Job Options by including those options within the PDF Options window.
33. How Does Pagemaker 7.0 Integrate With Photoshop 6.0 And Illustrator 9.0?
Answer: Adobe PageMaker 7.0 now enables you to import native Photoshop 5.0–6.0.x files, so you no longer have to maintain and store multiple versions of an image file. It also expands its longtime support for placing native Illustrator files with new support for native Illustrator 9.0.x files.* It even maintains layers in native Photoshop and Illustrator files on import. Now you can create an image or illustration and import it directly without having to save it as a flattened file in TIFF, EPS, or other formats. This new support streamlines the process of producing graphically compelling, readable, and persuasive publications. *Note: PageMaker 7.0 does not display or print transparency effects in native Illustrator 9.0 files. However, you can display and print transparency effects by first saving the Illustrator file as an EPS file.
34. What Language Dictionaries Are Included With Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: The Typical installation option will install the dictionary for the language that you chose when you launched the installer.
A Custom install, however, provides the following additional dictionaries:
35. What Are The Network Install Options For Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: Assuming the correct licensing is in place, the PageMaker 7.0 setup folder can be copied to a network drive, and users can install from that network drive. However, for performance reasons, we recommend that users copy the setup folder to their local drive and run the installation routine from their local machine, where possible.
36. How Many Bugs Did Pagemaker 7.0 Fix?
Answer: Adobe does not release information about specific bugs or bug counts. We can say that PageMaker 7.0 fixes a number of areas that improve the usability, performance, interoperability, and stability of the application.
37. Why Doesn’t Pagemaker 7.0 Include Ppds Anymore?
Answer: PageMaker 7.0 installs only the PPDs that Adobe creates: General, Color General, and Acrobat Distiller. The main reason that we do not include PPDs is because they become outdated, and new ones are being created for new devices all the time. Adobe recommends that you contact the manufacturer of your output device to obtain a PPD for that device.
38. When Will Pagemaker 7.0 Ship?
Answer: First customer shipment in the U.S. is expected in July, with localized versions shipping in August and September.
39. Is There A Special Cross-grade Price From QuarkXPress Or Ms Publisher?
Answer: Special offers change from time to time. Please check http://www.adobe.com/store/products/ pagemaker.html to see the current promotions available for PageMaker.
40. Will Adobe Be Discontinuing Pagemaker?
Answer: Adobe is committed to the PageMaker business and education customer base, and will continue to develop layout tools that meet the needs of this market segment.
41. Can I Open My Indesign Documents In Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: Unfortunately, there is no way to open an InDesign file in PageMaker.
42. Is Pagemaker 7.0 Windows 2000 Certified?
Answer: PageMaker 7.0 is compatible with Windows 2000 but not certified.
43. Will Pagemaker 7.0 Be Windows Xp Compatible?
Answer: Because PageMaker 7.0 will ship before Windows XP, it will not be certified to run under it. However, it should run successfully under Windows XP with few, if any, problems.
44. What Other Content Is Included In Pagemaker 7.0?
Answer: Adobe PageMaker 7.0 contents include:
Adobe PageMaker software
Professionally designed templates, stock illustrations, and high-resolution stock photography*
51 font families representing 183 Adobe typefaces (Education version)
57 font families representing 204 Adobe typefaces (Retail version)
Adobe Type Manager® Light 4.1 for Windows
Adobe Type Manager Light 4.6 for Macintosh
Adobe Table Editor
Converter for QuarkXPress (Macintosh)
Converter for QuarkXPress and Microsoft Publisher (Windows only)
Dictionary software for 17 languages
Apple QuickTime 4.1.2
Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0 and Distiller 5.0 software
Tryout versions of Adobe Photoshop 6.0, Illustrator 9.0, InDesign, GoLive® 5.0 and more
45. Explain What Is Postscript And Showpage Command?
Answer: PostScript is a page description language developed by Adobe Systems. It is a language for printing documents on laser printer, but it can also be used to produce images on other types of devices.
Showpage command transfers the contents of the current page to the current output device.
The main function of showpage is
It executes the endpage procedure in the page device dictionary
Executes the function equivalent of an initgraphics operation, reinitializing the graphics state for the next page
In page device dictionary, it executes the beginpage
If the Boolean result returned by the EndPage process is true, transmits the contents of the page to the current output device and performs the equivalent of an erasepage operation, clearing the contents in preparation for the next page.
46. Explain How You Can Create A Diptych?
Answer: To create a Diptych
Go to “Print” module under the main menu
Under layout style select Custom Package.
Now under Rulers, Grids and Guides , check and uncheck the options as per your requirement like page grid, rulers, image cells, dimensions etc.
After that adjust other settings like file resolution, custom file dimensions, JPEG Quality.
Now you can drag and drop the images on your film strip onto the blank page and arrange them.
When done, choose print to file to export your diptych.
47. What Is Adobe Cq5?
Answer: Adobe CQ5(also known as Adobe Experience Manager) is a java based content management system from adobe. It is based on a content repository to store the content of a website and use JCR(java content repository) specification to access the content repository.
It uses RestfulApache Sling framework to map request url to the corresponding node in content repository It uses powerful OSGi framework internally to allow modular application development. It means individual pieces of your application(called bundles in terms of OSGi) can be independently started and stopped. It uses Apache Felix as the OSGi container. Therefore different parts of cq5 can be independently started and stopped.
48. What Is The Technology Stack Used In Cq5 Or Aem(adobe Experience Manager)?
Answer: Adobe CQ5 uses the following technologies : JCR – Java specification for accessing a content repository JSR-283 specification jcr 2.0 , cq5 uses its own implementation of jcr called CRX. Apache Jackrabbit is an open-source implementation of jcr 2.0 specification. Apache Sling – RESTful framework to access a jcr over http protocol.
It maps the request url to the node in jcr. OSGi(Apache Felix) – Framework for modular application development using java. Each module called bundle can be independently started and stopped.OSGi container which provides implemention classes for OSGi framework.
49. Why A Content Management System Is Required In Cq?
Answer: Nowadays websites are very dynamic in nature, content needs to be updated very frequently, So, it is easier to manage the content of such websites using a CMS.
50. What Are The Advantages Of Cq5 Over Other Cms?
Answer: Below are the advantages of CQ5 over other CMS(Content management System):- Implementation of workflows for creating, editing and publishing of content. Managing a repository of digital assets like images, documents and integrating them to the websites.
Usage of search queries to find content no matter where it is stored in your organization. Setting up easily the social collaboration blogs, groups. Tagging utility to organize the digital assets such as images.
51. Explain Architecture Of Cq5 Application?
Answer: A CQ template enables you to define a consistent style for the pages in your application. A template comprises of nodes that specify the page structure.
52. What Is Aem?
Answer: Adobe Experience Manager (AEM), is a java based content management system that is offered from Adobe. It was previously called Day CQ5, but was acquired from Adobe in 2010. AEM is based on a content repository and uses the JCR to access the content in the repository.
AEM uses the Apache Sling framework to map request url to the corresponding node in the content repository. It also uses the OSGI framework to internally allow modular application development.
53. What Are The Advantages Of Aem Over Another Cms?
Answer: One big advantage of AEM over another CMS is how it integrates with other products from Adobe and with the Adobe Marketing Cloud. AEM comes built in with features like workflows to control content in the CMS, the use of search queries to find anything you are looking for, setting up social collaboration, tagging content, and a way to manage your digital content.
AEM also includes a way to manage mobile applications, mobile websites, e-commerce, and marketing campaign management.
54. What Is The Technology Stack That Cq5 Is Based On?
Answer: The CQ5 technology stack is based on three technologies. These technologies are: Apache Sling, OSGI (Apache Felix), and the Java Content Repository (JCR). Apache Sling is a RESTful framework that is used to access a jcr over http protocol. It will then map that request url to the node in the jcr. OSGI is a framework that is used for modular application development using Java.
Each module, which is called a bundle, can be stopped and started independently during runtime. The Java Content Repository uses the JSR-170 API to access the content repository by using Java independently of the physical implementation. CQ5 uses its own implementation of the jcr called CRX.
55. What Is The Role Of The Dispatcher?
Answer: The dispatcher is AEM’s caching and/or load balancing tool. By using the dispatcher it can also help protect your AEM server from attack since it will be using cached pages. The goal of the dispatcher is to cache as much content as possible, so it does not need to access the layout engine. Load balancing is the practice of distributing computational load of the website across several instances of AEM.
The benefits of using the dispatcher as a load balancing tool is so that you gain increased processing power since the dispatcher shares document requests between several instances of AEM, and to have increased fail-safe coverage. This is accomplished by if the dispatcher does not receive responsesfrom an instance, it will automatically relay the request to another instance.
56. What Is Sightly?
Answer: Sightly is an HTML templating language that was introduced in AEM 6.0. It is meant to take the place of JSP files and is the preferred templating system for HTML. The name sightly means “pleasing to the eye”, and its focus is to keep your markup beautiful and maintainable.
57. Why Is A Content Management System (cms) Required?
Answer: A content management system is a piece of software that is used to create and manage documents and Web sites. Many websites are dynamic, so their content needs to be updated frequently. In order manage these changes efficiently, it is recommend that a content management system be used. Which is why AEM is a content management system.
58. What Is Restful?
Answer: Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style and an approach to communications that is often used in the development of web services.
It relies on a stateless, client server, cacheable communications protocol. RESTful applications use HTTP requests to post data, read data, and delete data.The six architectural constraints of REST are: uniform interface, stateless, cacheable, client server, layered system, and code on demand.
59. What Are The Benefits Of Using Osgi?
Answer: The main benefits of using OSGI are:
It reduces the complexity of the system by having everything in bundles.
It makes the components loosely coupled and easy to manage since they can be installed, deleted, updated, started, and stopped at run time.
It increases the performance of the system since parts of the application that are not in use, do not need to be loaded in the memory.
60. What Is The Listener Property In Aem?
Answer: The listener property in AEM for a component is used to define what happens before or after an action on the component. This is added by using the “cq:listeners” node with a node type of “cq:EditListenersConfig”. The listener property can also be added to any widget in AEM.
In order to add a listener to that widget you just need to add to add a node that is called “listeners” with a type of “nt:unstructured”. Then you just need to add child nodes to the “listeners” node that are events of that widget. You can find a list of events for each widget by searching CQ Widget API documentation.
61. How Do You Load Digital Assets In Dam?
Answer: You can add digital assets to your dam by using the graphical user interface or through WebDav access.
If you are using the graphical user interface, you would just browse for the selected files you would like to add, and then cq will create the metadata for those assets in the dam folder. You would generally use the WebDav option when you want to upload a large number or assets at once.
62. How Do You Build A Bundle Through Crxde?
Answer: You can build a bundle through crxde by navigating to the source folder of your project located under “apps”. Once you do this, right click on the “src” folder and choose to create a bundle.
This will open the wizard that will walk you through creating your bundle. It is recommended that you no longer use crxde to create OSGI bundles for AEM. Instead you should be using Maven.
63. What Is The Purpose Of The Activator.java File?
Answer: The purpose of the Activator.java file is that it is to be notified any time there are bundle start and stop events for that bundle. The Activator.java file is an optional listener class that is created when you create a bundle through crxde.
64. What Is A Cq5 Overlay/override Component?
Answer: The overlay/override component is used when you want to use an out of the box component in AEM and you want to add extra features to it and you want to change it across all instances of that component. For example if you want to add features to the out of the box “text” component, but you don’t want to create a new component, you would want to copy the “text” component from “libs/foundation/components” to “apps/foundation/components” and keep the same folder structure that is used. When this is done, any changes that done to this new component will be reflected in the out of the box “text” component, without changing the original code under “libs”. It is generally not a good practice to modify the original code, which is why CQ offers the ability to use overlays.
65. What Is The Difference Between A Dialog And A Design Dialog?
Answer: A dialog is a key element of the component because they provide an interface for authors to configure and provide input to that component.
This input will be stored at the page level in the jcr. A design dialog is a dialog that will only display when you are in design mode in AEM. The input that is received here will be stored at the template level and will be accessed across the whole site.
66. What Is Extending A Component?
Answer: Extending a component is when you want to create a new component that will not override a base component, but will have the same features as the original so that you can change or build upon that component.
In order to extend a component, you must set“sling:resourceSuperType” of the component to the base component you would like to extend. By doing this, you will inherit everything from the base component.
67. How Does Sightly Differ From Other Templating Systems?
Answer: Sightly differs from other templating systems in three ways. Sightly is secure by default, it offers separation of concerns, and sightly is HTML5 because it is a valid HTML5 file. Sightly is secure by default because it automatically filters and escapes all variables being output to the presentation layer to prevent cross-site-scripting vulnerabilities. Sightly offers seperation of concern because it is purposely limited to ensure that a real programming language is used to express the corresponding logic. This is done through the Use-API pattern.
68. Can You Create A Page Without A Template?
Answer: Pages are usually created by selecting a template for the page when you create them in the Website console. However, a page can be created manually in the crxde by using the same properties that are created when you make a page in the Website console.
For example, in crxde under the content folder, create a node with the following type “cq:Page” and save it. Then add a child node with the following type “cq:PageContent”. Then you can add the required properties to show any components you want displayed on the page. It is generally not good practice to create pages manually.
69. What Are Xtypes And How Are They Useful In Aem?
Answer: In the ExtJS language an xtype is a symbolic name given to a class. In AEM these xtypes are widgets that used in the creation of components. AEM comes with a bunch of widgets that are available out of the box. You can also create and define your own xtype to be used in AEM.
An example of an xytpe is when you are creating your dialog for your component, and you want the author to be able to enter text, you would add a “cq:Widget” that has an xtype property of “textfield”.
70. How Do You Add Properties To The Page Properties Dialog?
Answer: You can add properties to your page properties dialog by copying the dialog located under “libs/foundation/components/page/dialog” and adding it to your page template. This will allow you to add new tabs and add new properties that you would like the author to chooses from for pages that use that template.
You could modify the original page dialog as well to get the same result, however it is not recommended.
71. What Is The Difference Between The Author And Publish Environment?
Answer: A production environment usually has two difference instances of AEM running. One is the author instance, and the other is the publish instance. These two instances are usually kept in two different settings.
The author instance is where you will enter and manage content for your website. This is where you will administer your site as well. The author environment is usually kept behind a firewall. The publish instance is where you will make your content available for your targeted audience. The publish environment is usually kept in a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).
72. What Is A Replication Agent?
Answer: A replication agent is used to publish active content from the author environment to the publish environment, to flush content from the dispatcher cache, and return user input from the publish environment to the author environment. The replication agents are central to AEM.
73. What Is Resource Mapping?
Answer: Resource mapping is used to define redirects, vanity URLs and virtual hosts for AEM. You can use resource mapping to prefix all requests with “/content” so the internal structure of the AEM site is hidden from your visitors. You can also use resource mapping to define a redirect so that all requests to the gateway page of your site are redirected to another site.
74. What Is Resource Resolution In Sling?
Answer: Resource resolution in Sling is how Sling takes a URL and attempts to resolve it to a script. This is done by extracting information from the URL. Here is an example
75. It Can Be Broken Down As Follows:
Answer: Protocol Host Content path Selector(s) Extension Suffix Param(s)
http:// myhost tools/spy .printable.a4. html / a/b ? x=12
Sling uses the content path that is extracted from the request to locate the resource in the JCR. When this resource is located, the sling resource type is extracted, and then it is used to located the script to be used for rendering that content.
76. What Design Patterns Are Used In Aem?
Answer: Since AEM is built using OSGI, many of the design patterns for OSGI are valid. Some of these design patterns are Singleton (Service), Adapter Service, Resource Adapter Service, and Whiteboard. Also, since AEM is modular, you should be able to use any design pattern in your application.
77. What Is Reverse Replication?
Answer: Reverse replication is the process of replicating content from publish environment to the author environment. In order to accomplish this you need a reverse replication agent on your author instance that is configured to get content from the publish environment outbox.
78. What Is The File Extension For Adobe After Effects Projects?
Answer: The file extension for, Adobe After effects project is .aep.
79. What Is The Function Of Key Frames In After Effects?
Answer: The function of the key frames is to set parameters for audio, motion, visual effects and many other properties for any image or object by changing them over time. After effects is mostly used for animation purpose, and by setting key frames and after effects properties, they can move the image as if they are a video.
80. What Is Cti And What Is The Function Of Cti?
Answer: CTI stands for Current Time Indicator, and it controls the time line of the footage in the composition panel. With the help of CTI you can move the footage backward or forward.
81.How Can You Reach The Exact Spot Of The Footage?
Answer: To get into the exact spot of footage, in the control panel below the composition screen there is a tab showing time. On double clicking the tab, it will open a window where you can adjust the time and you can reach to the exact spot of the footage.
82. What Is The Key That Will Help You To Know, How Much Area Will Cut Out From The Footage?
Answer: While you are on the composition panel, by pressing apostrophe (!) key will show you the area that will cut out from the footage.
83. What Is The Function Of Scale? What Are The Control Keys In The Tool Bar?
Answer: It makes your picture or object, grow or shrink. Once the picture is selected, you will see a scale menu in the composition panel. Click on the tab infront of the “scale” bar known as stop watch, and the picture is ready to grow or shrink. To control the size of the picture, on the right hand side of the “Scale bar” you will see a number, increasing and decreasing those, number you can grow and shrink the size of the picture.
84. How You Can Delete The Previous Time Frame From The Time Frame Panel?
Answer: The time frame will be indicated with a yellow dot, by clicking on that yellow button and then pressing the delete button, you can delete the previous time frame.
85. How You Can Rotate Your Picture?
Answer: In the composition panel, select rotation option by pressing ‘r’ on your keyboard. Now on the right hand side you will see numbers, which show how much degree you want to rotate the picture. You can rotate the picture by increasing and decreasing those numbers.
86. What Is The Different Axis You Can Rotate?
Answer: There are three axis x, y and z that your picture can rotate and to select the axis, you have to click on the right side of one of the three boxes that resides right below the “Tool bar”. The “Tool bar” is between the “Source Name” bar and “Parent” bar in the composition panel.
87. What Is ‘ease In’ And ‘ease Out’ In After Effects?
Answer: Slowing down the speed of your moving picture is known as ‘ease in’ while to bring it back to its original speed is known as ‘ease out’.
88. What Is Graph Editor?
Answer: Graph editor can help you to change the rotation speed and the degree of rotation. It is in the corner of the composition panel on the right hand side.
89. What Is Motion Sketch?
Answer: Motion sketch is a path you want your object and picture to drop or move. For motion sketch, click on the window tab in menu bar and select Motion Sketch option from the window bar. Now you can draw the path and make your image move accordingly.
90. What Is The Function Of Split Layer?
Answer: In edit bar, if you select split option you can split your video clip into two sections or layer. So, when you want to do animation separately for each layer or each video clip you have separated, you can do it by using split layer option.
91. What Is The Function Of Blending Mode?
Answer: When you press F4 , “Mode” option will appear in the composition panel. When you click on the mode option, it will come with a list of option like color, multiply, darker, hard light, overlay etc. By using this option you can not only change the appearance of image but also can blend or overlap two images on each other and make it appear as single image.
92. What Is A Mask In After Effects And What Is The Short Key To Select The Image?
Answer: The mask is the technique by which you can select the specific area within the image or picture you want to modify while leaving the rest of the image steady, the short key to select image in mask is Ctrl+T.
93. What Is Adobe Photoshop?
Answer: It is software developed by Adobe to create and edit images and logos. By adobe photoshop adjustment and modification can be done.
94. How You Can Re-size The Image In Photoshop?
Answer: To resize the image in Photoshop you have to go into menu bar, under menu bar you will find an option “Image Size”. On clicking that option, it will open a dialog box, by which you can adjust the size of the image.
95. What Is A Gradient In Adobe Photoshop?
Answer: Gradients are a great way to introduce eye-catching and flashy graphics in your pages.
96. What Are The Photoshop’s Work Areas?
Answer: The Photoshop’s work area includes Application Bar, Option Bar, Panel Dock and Tools panel.
97. In Adobe Photoshop How You Can Print The Grid?
Answer: First of all you have to place the non-printing grid in a manner you want the print, and then take a screen shot. Now, you have to open a new file and paste your screen shot image on it. Once done, you can crop the background of the Photoshop window except the image with the grid. The image is ready for print.
98. What Is Resizing Images And What Are The Parameters To Change The Size Of The Picture?
Answer: To suit a particular purpose of the application resizing of the images is done.
The parameters to change the size of image are:
Type of image or picture
Size of pixels
99. In Photoshop, What Is A Smart Object?
Answer: In Photoshop CS2 and above, it has a special layer known as Smart Object Layer. Smart objects give freedom to work with multiple copies of a single object. All the multiple copies will be updated simultaneously when single object is updated. Also, changes in the adjustment of layers and layer styles of a single object can be done without affecting the multiple copies. Without any loss in pixel, pixel based objects can be changed several times.
100. How Do You Organize Layers In Photoshop?
Answer: A layers shows a picture or image. To organize layers in Photoshop, place various images in separate layers. Lock the unused layers and unlock the layers which are in use. When two or more layers need to be changed, unlock the layers.
101. How You Can Unlock The Background In Photoshop?
Answer: To unlockground image, first click on the picture or image and then select MODE option. After that, select the option GRAY SCALE and revert to LAYER. When you double click on the surface, the surface will be unlocked.